Kanyen’kéha Time Words 1

Most Mohawk time words are built up from roots plus verb prefixes and suffixes. One or two are “particles”, meaning they cannot be analyzed into smaller parts. Generally speaking, by adding a certain prefix (shi- for past events and en- for future events), the function of a regular noun or verb is changed into a time word.

For example, yò:karahs (it-be dark-HAB) is the verb for “It is dark” or “It is night-time”. To change this to “last night”, add the Coincident prefix shi-, shiyò:karahs (COIN-it-be dark-HAB), literally, “at the same time as when it was dark”.

Time Word Translation Breakdown Root Isolated Word
shiyò:karahs last night COIN-it-be dark-HAB -a’karah- {-s, -we’, -on} yò:karahs
ó:ya shiyò:karahs the other night another
enyò:karahwe’ tonight FUT-it-be dark-PUNC
sewahsóntha one night ITER-it-be night-NOUN -ahsonth- ahsóntha
shiyorhèn:ke this morning COIN-it-be light-? (Locative? Cont+Punc?) -rhen’- {-s, -ne’, -?} yórhens
enrhen’ne’ tomorrow FUT-it-be light-PUNC
thetén:re yesterday
ó:ya shithetén:re the other day
sewenhní:sera one day ITER-it-be a day-NOUN -enhniser- enhní:sera
wenhniserá:te today it-day-be there-HAB -t- {-e, -e’, -?}
ken wenhniserá:te today this
nón:wa wenhniserá:te today now
sewén:te’ one week ITER-it-be daylight/feast day-PUNC -ent- {-e, -e’, -?} wén:te
shisewén:te’ last week COIN-ITER-it-be daylight/feast day-PUNC
sewén:te’ kénha last week former, past
sewén:te’ yotohétston last week it-REFL-pass-STAT -ohetst- {-ha, -e’, -on} kohétstha
ó:ya shisewén:te’ the other week
ensewén:te’ next week FUT-ITER-it-be daylight/feast day-PUNC
ó:ya ensewén:te’ in a couple of weeks
sewenhnì:ta one month ITER-it-be a month/moon-NOUN -enhni’t-
shisewenhnì:ta last month COIN-ITER-it-be a month/moon-NOUN
sewenhnì:ta kénha last month
sewenhnì:ta yotohétston last month
ó:ya shisewenhnì:ta the other month
ensewenhnì:ta next month FUT-ITER-it-be a month/moon-NOUN
ó:ya ensewenhnì:ta in a couple of months
tsyóhsera one year ITER-it-be a winter-NOUN -ohser- óhsera
tsyóhsera kénha last year
tsyóhsera yotohétston last year
ó:ya shitsyóhsera
entsyóhsera next year FUT-ITER-it-be a winter-NOUN
ó:ya entsyóhsera in a couple of years
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